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Common Fine Art & Animation Terminology
Giclée or Iris - A computerized reproduction technique in which the image and topology are generated from a digital file and printed by a special ink let printer, using ink, acrylic or oil paints. Giclée printing offers one of the highest degree of accuracy and richness of color available in any reproduction techniques. Giclee prints are often limited edition and hand signed and numbered by the artist.
Edition Size - The total number of pieces printed of one particular image. Separate edition sizes are recorded for the signed and numbered prints, artist's proofs and printer's proofs.
Cel - Short for celluloid; a piece of clear plastic containing the images that are placed over a background to be photographed in succession to form the action of a completed film. The outline of the image, whether hand-inked or Xerox, is applied to the front of the cel. The colors are painted on the back of the cel, with certain colors, notably black, sometimes painted onto the front (for glare reduction). Most cels are "still cels" with only set of peg holes.
Hand Painted Cel - A limited edition animation cel that is hand inked or painted with quill-pen or brush, using ink of one or more colors.
Lithography - Printing technique using a planographic process in which prints are pulled on a special press from a flat stone or metal surface that has been chemically sensitized so that- ink sticks only to the design areas, and is repelled by the non-image areas.
(OPD) Original Production Drawing - The original production drawings by the animators from which the cels are traced or xeroxed.
(OPC) Original Production Cel - The original production cels made by the animators to create the original animation short or film.
Remarque - Small sketch in the margin of an art print or additional enhancements by the artist on some or all of the final prints within an edition.
Sericel or Seriograph - A sericel is created using serigraphy by silk-screening an image onto acetate material. No hand-painting or inking is involved. May be produced as a limited edition
Serigraphy (Silkscreen) - A printing technique that makes use of a squeegee to force ink directly on to a piece of`paper or canvas through a stencil creating an image on a screen of silk or other fine fabric with an impermeable substance. Serigraphy differs from most other printing in that its color areas are paint films rather than printing-ink stains.
(SN) Signed and Numbered - The main edition. Limited-edition prints that have been signed and sequentially numbered by the artist. The artist's signature is usually found in one of the lower corners of the print and is accompanied by a number that looks like a fraction; the top number indicates the unique number of the print and the bottom number indicates the total number of prints in the edition.
(AP) Artist's proof - Print intended for the artist's personal use. It is a common practice to reserve approximately ten percent of an edition as artist's proofs, although this figure can be higher. Prints are signed and numbered by the artist and generally hold a higher value.
(HC) Hors d'Commerce Proof - Print identical to the edition print intended to be used as samples to show to dealers and galleries. Hers d'Commerce (abbreviated H.C.) Prints are signed and numbered by the artist and generally hold a higher value.
(PP) Printer's proof - Print retained by the printer and artist as a reference. Prints are signed and numbered by the artist and generally hold a higher value.
Open-Edition: A reproduction of an original work of art that is sometimes signed by the artist. The number of Giclées published is not predetermined.
More Fine Art & Animation Terminology
Acetate Cel: Refers to cels made of cellulose acetate, a much more stable material than nitrate, and still in use today.
Acid-free Paper or Canvas - Paper or canvas treated to neutralize its natural acidity in order to protect fine are: and photographic prints from discoloration and deterioration.
Acrylic - A fast-drying paint which is easy to remove with mineral spirits; a plastic substance commonly used as a binder for paints.
Aquatint - Printing technique capable of producing unlimited tonal gradations to re-create the broad flat tints of ink wash or watercolor drawings by etching microscopic crackles and pits into the image on a master plate, typically made of copper or zinc. The majority of Spanish artist Goya's (1746-1828) graphic works were done using this technique.
Collagraph - Printing technique in which proofs are pulled from a block on which the artwork or design is built up like a collage, creating a relief.
Courvoisier - Refers to a cel set-up marketed by Courvoisier's original galleries from 1937 to 1946. In original condition, all have similar distinctive - a cream colored mat with the character and/or film name inscribed in pencil below the mat opening, plus an encircled "WDP (or "WDE" prior to 1939) stamped or embossed on the mat and/or background. Characters were usually, but not always, cut out and glued to the background with a protective cel over the image. Certain cels, most notably from Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, were also "enhanced" with additional airbrushing on the edges of the characters to presumably create a more subtle three dimensional appearance.
Engraving - Printing technique in which an intaglio image is produced by cutting a metal plate or box directly with a sharp engraving tool. The incised lines are inked and printed with heavy pressure.
Etching - Printing technique in which a metal plate is first covered with an acid-resistant material, then worked with an etching needle to create an intaglio image. The exposed met-al is eaten away in an acid bath, creating depressed lines that are later inked for printing. This technique was thought re-, have been developed by Daniel Hopfer (1493-1536). Etching surpassed engraving as the most popular graphic art during the active years of Rembrandt and Hercules Segher in the 17th century, and it remains one of the most versatile and subtle printing techniques today.
Gouache - Opaque watercolors used for illustrations.
Impasto - A thick, juicy application of paint to canvas or other support; emphasizes texture, as distinguished from a smooth flat surface.
Limited Edition - Set of identical prints numbered in succession and signed by the artist. The total number of prints is fixed or "limited" by the artist who supervises the printing hlm(her)self. All additional prints have been destroyed.
Maquette - In sculpture, a small model in wax or clay, made as a preliminary sketch, presented to the client for approval of the proposed work, or for entry in a competition. The Italian equivalent of the term is bozzetto, meaning small sketch.
Mixed Media - Descriptive of art that employs more than one medium - e.g., a work that combines paint, natural materials (wood, pebbles, bones), and man made items (glass, plastic, metals) into a single image or piece of art.
Model Sheets (Model Drawings) - A grouping of characters or a single character in a variety of poses and expressions used as a reference guide for animators to ensure consistency of drawing during a production. Both preliminary and final production designs can be found. Model sheets exists in two forms:
Monochromatic - Having only one color. Descriptive of work in which one hue - perhaps with variations of value and intensity - predominates.
Monoprint - One-of-a-kind print conceived by the artist and printed by or under the artist's supervision.
Monotype - One-of-a-kind print made by painting on a sheet of metal or glass and transferring the still-wet painting to a sheet of paper by hand or with an etching press. If enough paint remains on the master plate, additional prints can be made, however, the reprint will have substantial variations from the original Image. Monotype printing is not a multiple-replica process since each print is unique.
Photorealism - A painting and drawing style of the mid 20th century in which people, objects, and scenes are depicted with such naturalism that the paintings resemble photographs - an almost exact visual duplication of the subject.
Pop Art - A style of art which seeks its inspiration from commercial art and items of mass culture (such as comic strips, popular foods and brand name packaging). Pop art was first developed in New York City in the late 1950's and soon became the dominant avant-garde art form in the United States.
Realism - A style of painting which depicts subject matter (form, color, space) as it appears in actuality or ordinary visual experience without distortion or stylization.
Surrealism - A painting style of the early 20th century that emphasized imagery and visions from dreams and fantasies, as well as an intuitive, spontaneous method of recording such imagery, often combining unrelated or unexpected objects in compositions. The works of Magritte and Dali, and Picasso are included in the genre.
Triptych - A three-part work of art; especially a painting, meant for placement on an altar, with three panels that fold together.
Watercolor - A painting medium in which the binder is gum arabic. Water is used to thinning, lightening or mixing.
Watercolor - A painting medium in which the binder is gum arabic. Water is used to thinning, lightening or mixing.
What is a Giclée From the French verb "to spray", the word Giclée (zhee-clay) is used to describe a digital fine art printmaking process. Giclée prints are created using a high-resolution inkjet printer. Photographic mages or paintings are carefully scanned and reproduced using stable pigment-based inks. Giclée's are printed on a variety of substrates or mediums, the most common being watercolor paper or canvas. Image permanence is a concern to artists and collectors, the Giclée process gives fade & color shift resistance of better than 125 years. The digital printmaking process is capable of producing exceptional results for both original printmakers and for the reproduction of original works of art; because of its extended color gamut and continuous tone characteristics, digital printmaking is considered a superior technology for printing all forms of art including photography.
How do I care for my Giclée print? You can extend the life expectancy of a Giclée art prints by not hanging them in direct sunlight or in rooms with excessive moisture. Care for them as you would any fine artwork on paper and they will reward you with many years of pleasure. Infinite Edition's Giclée are coated with a UV lacquer spray which increases protection against harmful UV radiation.Additional protection can be achieved by using glass incorporating a UV filtering layer.
How do Giclée prints differ from lithographs and serigraphs? Offset lithographs are created by taking a continuous tone image and processing it through a screen. The result is an image created with a series of dots, each one proportional in size to the density of the original at the location of that dot. The human eye is consequently "tricked" into seeing something that approximates a continuous tone image. Most printed material such as newspapers and magazines are printed with this process.
Serigraphs are really screen prints. These prints are made by creating a set of screens, each representing one color. Ink is then squeezed through the screen and onto the media. For fine art reproduction purposes, the number of screens required to approximate the tonal qualities of the original are typically from 20 to more than 100. The larger the number of screens, the closer a serigraph can appear to be continuous tone and the more expensive it is to produce.
Giclée prints have many advantages over both the offset lithograph and the serigraph. The color available for Giclée processing is limited only by the color gamut of the inks themselves. Therefore, literally millions of colors are available and the limitation imposed by the screening process does not exist.
The Giclée process uses such small dots and so many of them that they are not discernible to the eye. A Giclée print is essentially a continuous tone print showing every color and tonal nuance.
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